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The early 1990s saw increasing interest in the UK in the argument (underpinned by various theories) that the installation of CCTV in towns and cities would improve the detection of criminal activity and therefore lead to a reduction in crime. This view was promoted heavily by various interest groups (and rather vociferously by the makers of the technology) at a time when ‘fear of crime’ was a particularly high-profile political issue. The consequence of this was that a number of CCTV projects were established in areas where crime had been identified as a problem.

Post-implementation/summative evaluations of the CCTV schemes showed that crime in these areas had fallen. Therefore (using the input–output model of causality) various interest groups concluded that CCTV (the input) caused the reduction (the output). More significantly, as a number of CCTV initiatives had been implemented over a relatively short period of time, and evaluations showed that crime fell in each area, it was not long before these findings were used to generalise that there was a technological solution to a significant social problem. In other words, the regularities in the findings led to the inference that there was a direct causal relationship between a reduction in crime and CCTV.

What seemed like a straightforward and logical conclusion soon came under attack when other evaluators and researchers (who often subscribed to a different causal paradigm, such as forms of realism or systems thinking) queried these conclusions. Their particular focus was on the context in which CCTV was implemented and what occurred through various processes and mechanisms in that context over the period between the implementation of the CCTV and the evaluation of the outcome. This demonstrated, for example, that CCTV projects got significant publicity in the local and national press, and that in areas where cameras were installed large signs were often placed on lampposts over extensive areas (often larger than the area covered by the cameras) warning of the presence of CCTV.

These ‘mechanisms’ functioned in at least two ways. They raised the awareness of crime amongst local people. And they educated people in the importance of adopting simple security measures, such as making sure cars were locked and valuables out of sight. They also alerted would-be criminals to the likelihood that the environment in which they operated might have changed. In short, in addition to the technology there were other social and structural mechanisms that appeared to have contributed to the observed outcome of a reduction in crime. Furthermore, it appeared that ‘awareness raising’ alone (i.e. where no CCTV was actually present) led to a reduction in crime. Consequently, deciding which of the technological or non-technological mechanisms was the most significant to the observed outcome was far from clear.

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Public space surveillance (CCTV) in Hackney
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Public space surveillance (PSS) cameras:

We have several types of camera. Some are used for monitoring things liketemperatures, work processes, electrical loads and so on, some for security such as monitoring fire doorsand some for people's safety and security.

We have370 camerason highways and in other public places primarily used tohelpwith people's safety and security, and another 1,812 cameras on housing estates and blocks. Some of these housing estate and block cameras are used to monitor people's safety and security, others to monitor public assets (such as doors) and ensure the buildings are well managed. We also have cameras in council buildings used for the same purposes.

We'll use any camera installed, if possible,for helping with people's safety and security whentheir property and welfare are at risk. We keep recordings for 28 days before deleting them.


We logged 1,290incidents incidents inMayand 425were initiated by our PSS operators. In the last year we've received one complaint about PSS cameras, and 5 letters of thanks from partners and the public.


Public space surveillance cameras are located in these areas:


Some people regard surveillance cameras asan infringement of personal liberty.Webelieve that everyone has the right to respect for their private and family life. Our public space surveillance cameras are carefully positioned to respect people's privacy, and they don't overlook any areas where you would expect privacy.

Obtaining camera images to assist with civil claims

We can provide recordings from PSS cameras for civil claims between individuals or companies.The most common requests aredue to traffic collisions.

If you need to requestvideo images, the request shouldcome fromyour insurance company or solicitorto provide assurance that the images are being used for lawful purposes,We have a legal duty to ensure images are not disclosed unlawfully under the Data Protection Act 1998 and the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012.

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We'll respond telling applicants if there are cameras that may have caught the incident. This service isfree.

We can also advise members of the public if there are any cameras in the area, but we will not release any footage to them. We will only release footage to their insurance company or solicitor.

If there are cameras that might have caught the incident

We'll invite your solicitororinsurerto make an application and send a cheque for £33 (including VAT), so we can search for footage.

If there's footage

We'llinvite your solicitororinsurerto send a cheque for £132 (including VAT), so we can produce the footage with a statement and send it to them.

Why we charge

The public surveillancecamera system is installed to deal with crime and disorder and the staff searching for the images foryou would normally be searching for criminal activity. If you believe there's a compelling reason why we should not charge for this service in your case please email or call 020 8356 2333 to discuss your request.

FOI requests

Please note that wedon't provide video images in response to Womens Sflancia Ss Polo Dress Rt Short Sleeve Dress Selected J8wpEp
, as under the FOI Act (Part 2, s.21 )we don'thave a legal duty to supply them if they are available via another route. In this case they're available in accordance with our publication scheme and the payment required is specified in, or determined in accordance withthe scheme.

Subject access requests

If you've made a subject access request application under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), please be aware it'sunlikely to succeed. The chances of the Council recording any personal data in ourimages is extremely low, as our cameras are zoomed out to record a wide angle overview of roads.Any request made will be dealt with, but please bear in mind that the delay in dealing with the request may mean any video images are overwritten before they can be produced as evidence for applicants.

How the cameras help reduce crime

The government believes cameras deter 'opportunistic' crime, where people take advantage of a situation on the spur of the moment. The cameras are also creating a vastly increased rate of conviction after crimes are detected. Anyone caught committing an offence on public space surveillance cameras is likely to plead guilty, thus saving time on long and expensive trials. Incidents such as robbery, road traffic offences, theft, fly-tipping, drug-related incidents and any other antisocial behaviour or suspicious activities are often captured.


The system used by the Council involves a linked system of cameras with full pan, tilt and zoom controls, which can be operated remotely from our control room. The clarity of the pictures is excellent and the systems can work in pitch-black darkness, bringing images up to daylight level.Features include night vision, computer-assisted operation and motion detection facilities which canalert the operatorwhen anything moves in view of the cameras.


If you'd liketo register a complaint about our public surveillance cameras, please contact the PSS manager atthe addressbelow.All complaints aredealt with in accordance with ourcomplaints procedure.

Speed cameras and red light cameras

Speedcameras and red light cameras are operated by TfL (Transport for London). The Council is not responsible for them and doesn't hold any information on them.

They're installed across London in places where people have been killed or seriously injured by people driving too fastor running red lights. The number of collisions and casualties has decreased on the roads where they've been used.

Enquiries and freedom of information requests

Speed cameras and red light cameras are operated by TfL and the Council doesn't holdany data about them.For freedom of information enquiries please contact TfL at Malvern ruffletrimmed floralprint cotton dress Isabel Marant DwHd5MCRp
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Civil Protection Service definisce letecnologie AI portatrici di una doppia valenza

Ad oggi, i progetti AI presuppongono comunque l’intervento dell’uomo. Pensiamo al Skinny Jeans In White White Asos esQOKdKRZW
, un piccolo automa che può camminare e interagire quasi come un bambino. Pepper ha un’autonomia limitata e non è in grado di cominciare una conversazione se non riceve un comando particolare, che si tratti di una parola d’ordine o di un input da un computer connesso senza fili. Da qui ai prossimi anni non vediamo tecnologie davvero indipendenti perché non vi è modo, per quanto ne sappiamo, di lasciar vagare macchine e droni per il mondo, evitando che vadano a sbattere da qualche parte e non si rialzino più.

Pepper ha un’autonomia limitata

È quanto afferma un pioniere come Stephen Hawking , quando ricorda che la tecnologia è il risultato di quanto previsto dalla scienza. Il problema qui è che un’eccessiva crescita delle competenze della AI rischia di trasformare oggetti nati per scopi utili in pericoli ambulanti. Facciamo qualche esempio sulla base dell’indagine riportata sopra.

rischia di trasformare oggetti Un drone può Un robot in fabbrica può Un algoritmo di controllo fake news Un computer super potente

L’Intelligenza Artificiale non è IL bene o IL male ma uno strumento (tanti, in realtà) aperto ad ogni possibilità, con un ago della bilancia parecchio sensibile. Chi può dire se l’algoritmo applicato alla riproduzione 3D di Vladimir Putin e Donald Trump è un traguardo per l’informatica o una minaccia all’umanità?

riproduzione 3D di Vladimir Putin e Donald Trump

Da un lato rappresenta un punto di arrivo fondamentale per applicazioni di creatività digitale, dall’altro un’arma dall’inestimabile valore che i cyberterroristi potrebbero usare per scatenare il panico negli USA, magari interferendo con le trasmissioni di un canale nazionale.

un’arma dall’inestimabile valore

È evidente che lo sviluppo della AI porta con sé interrogativi sensati, che poco hanno a che vedere con le visioni apocalittiche del cinema di Hollywood. C’è chi, come alcuni ricercatori di Google e dell’Università di Oxford , ha pensato di creare un ipotetico bottone rosso, una linea di codice che, se attivata, spegne ogni tipo di macchina dotata di Intelligenza Artificiale.

alcuni ricercatori di Google e dell’Università di Oxford

Consideriamolo un pulsante di emergenza, da utilizzare quando ci accorgeremo di essere andati troppo oltre. Il limite massimo è fissato al 2115 , anno in cui per il Future of Humanity Institute , la società sarà olive branch print ruffled tier dress Pink amp; Purple Borgo De Nor vpCIf
: case, macchine, città, gadget in tasca, in testa e nelle borse. Innovazione ad ogni costo, va bene, ma con un’etica di fondo che ci dia ancora quella supremazia persa, per ora, solo al cinema.

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Federal charges won’t be filed against former APD officer in bodycam footage
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ASHEVILLE, N.C. (WLOS) — The U.S. Attorney’s Office announced Friday that federal charges will not be filed against former Asheville Police Department officer Christopher Hickman, the man who appears in Ingrid Wrap Midi Dress Mara Hoffman fyLTXg

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The charges stem from the August 25, 2017, arrest of pedestrian Johnnie Rush. Body camera footage of the arrest shows Hickman striking Rush in the head .
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When Rush tried to run, the video shows Hickman brought him down and repeatedly punched him in the head.

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